By Dr. Mercola April 11, 2012
According to some scientists, changing your health may be as "simple" as changing your thoughts and beliefs.
"Contrary to what many people are being led to believe, a lot of emphasis placed on genes determining human behavior is nothing but theory and doctrine," writes Konstantin Erikseni . "We are free to make decisions that impact our lives and those of others. … Our beliefs can change our biology. We have the power to heal ourselves, increase our feelings of self-worth and improve our emotional state."
Epigenetics Shatters "The Central Dogma"Eriksen goes on to discuss something called "The Central Dogma" of molecular biology, which states that biological information is transferred sequentially and only in one direction (from DNA to RNA to proteins).
The ramification of buying into the central dogma is that it leads to belief in absolute determinism, which leaves you utterly powerless to do anything about the health of your body; it's all driven by your genetic code, which you were born with.
However, scientists have completely shattered this dogma and proven it false. You actually have a tremendous amount of control over how your genetic traits are expressed—from how you think to what you eat and the environment you live in.
You may recall the Human Genome Projectii , which was launched in 1990 and completed in 2003. The mission was to map out all human genes and their interactions, which would than serve as the basis for curing virtually any disease. Alas, not only did they realize the human body consists of far fewer genes than previously believed, they also discovered that these genes do not operate as previously predicted.
In the featured article, Eriksen describes the experiments of John Cairns, a British molecular biologist who in 1988 produced compelling evidence that our responses to our environment determine the expression of our genes. A radical thought, for sure, but one that has been proven correct on multiple occasions since then.
Eriksen writes iii :
"Cairns took bacteria whose genes did not allow them to produce lactase, the enzyme needed to digest milk sugar, and placed them in petri dishes where the only food present was lactase. Much to his astonishment, within a few days, all of the petri dishes had been colonized by the bacteria and they were eating lactose. The bacterial DNA had changed in response to its environment. This experiment has been replicated many times and they have not found a better explanation than this obvious fact – that even primitive organisms can evolve consciously.
So, information flows in both directions, from DNA to proteins and from proteins to DNA, contradicting the "central dogma." Genes can be activated and de-activated by signals from the environment. The consciousness of the cell is inside the cell's membrane. Each and every cell in our bodies has a type of consciousness. Genes change their expression depending on what is happening outside our cells and even outside our bodies."
Your Emotions Regulate Your Genetic ExpressionAs if genes changing expression in response to environmental factors such as nutrients wasn't enough, other researchers have demonstrated that this "environment" that your genes respond to also includes your conscious thoughts, emotions, and unconscious beliefs. Cellular biologist Bruce Lipton, PhD., is one of the leading authorities on how emotions can regulate genetic expression, which are explained in-depth in his excellent books The Biology of Belief, and Spontaneous Evolution.
Science has indeed taken us far beyond Newtonian physics, which says you live in a mechanical universe. According to this belief, your body is just a biological machine, so by modifying the parts of the machine, you can modify your health. Also, as a biological machine, your body is thought to respond to physical "things" like the active chemicals in drugs, and by adjusting the drugs that modify your machinery, doctors can modify and control health. However, with the advent of quantum physics, scientists have realized the flaws in Newtonian physics, as quantum physics shows us that the invisible, immaterial realm is actually far more important than the material realm. In fact, your thoughts may shape your environment far more than physical matter!
According to Dr. Lipton, the true secret to life does not lie within your DNA, but rather within the mechanisms of your cell membrane.
Each cell membrane has receptors that pick up various environmental signals, and this mechanism controls the "reading" of the genes inside your cells. Your cells can choose to read or not read the genetic blueprint depending on the signals being received from the environment. So having a "cancer program" in your DNA does not automatically mean you're destined to get cancer. Far from it. This genetic information does not ever have to be expressed...
What this all means is that you are not controlled by your genetic makeup. Instead, your genetic readout (which genes are turned "on" and which are turned "off") is primarily determined by your thoughts, attitudes, and perceptions!
The major problem with believing the myth that your genes control your life is that you become a victim of your heredity. Since you can't change your genes, it essentially means that your life is predetermined, and therefore you have very little control over your health. With any luck, modern medicine will find the gene responsible and be able to alter it, or devise some other form of drug to modify your body's chemistry, but aside from that, you're out of luck… The new science, however, reveals that your perceptions control your biology, and this places you in the driver's seat, because if you can change your perceptions, you can shape and direct your own genetic readout.
This new science also reveals that you are in fact an extension of your environment, which includes everything from your thoughts and belief systems, to toxic exposures and exposure to sunlight, exercise, and, of course, everything you choose to put onto and into your body. As Dr. Lipton is fond of saying, the new biology moves you out of victimhood and into Mastery—mastery over your own health.
It is a supreme confirmation of my favorite saying, "You Can Take Control of Your Health."
How Nutrition Alters Genetic ExpressionTwo years ago, a study performed by the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University was showcased at the annual Experimental Biology convention. The study demonstrated how "histone modifications" can impact the expression of many degenerative diseases, ranging from cancer and heart disease to biopolar disorder and even aging itself. According to Rod Dashwood, a professor of environmental and molecular toxicology and head of LPI's Cancer Chemoprotection Program, as quoted in a press releaseiv:
"We believe that many diseases that have aberrant gene expression at their root can be linked to how DNA is packaged, and the actions of enzymes such as histone deacetylases, or HDACs. As recently as 10 years ago we knew almost nothing about HDAC dysregulation in cancer or other diseases, but it's now one of the most promising areas of health-related research."
In a nutshell, we all have tumor suppressor genes, and these genes are capable of stopping cancer cells in their tracks. These genes are present in every cell in your body, but so are proteins called "histones." As Dr. Jean-Pierre Issa at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center explainsv , histones can "hug" DNA so tightly that it becomes "hidden from view for the cell." If a tumor suppressor gene is hidden, it cannot be utilized, and in this way too much histone will "turn off" these cancer suppressors, and allow cancer cells to proliferate.
Now here's where epigenetics comes in … certain foods, such as broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, garlic, and onions contain substances that act as histone inhibitors, which essentially block the histone, allowing your tumor suppressor genes to activate and fight cancer. By regularly consuming these foods, you are naturally supporting your body's ability to fight tumors.
Certain alternative oncologists also tap directly into the epigenetic mechanism, such as Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez, who uses a three-pronged approach to cancer based primarily on nutrition and detoxification, and Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski, who treats cancer with a gene-targeted approach. His treatment uses non-toxic peptides and amino acids, known as antineoplastons, which act as genetic switches that turn your tumor suppressor genes "on."
A Healthy Lifestyle Supports Healthy Genetic ExpressionSo the good news is that you are in control of your genes … You can alter them on a regular basis, depending on the foods you eat, the air you breathe, and the thoughts you think. It's your environment and lifestyle that dictates your tendency to express disease, and this new realization is set to make major waves in the future of disease prevention -- including one day educating people on how to fight disease at the epigenetic level. When a disease occurs, the solution, according to epigenetic therapy, is simply to "remind" your affected cells (change its environmental instructions) of its healthy function, so they can go back to being normal cells instead of diseased cells.
You can begin to do this on your own, long before you manifest a disease. By leading a healthy lifestyle, with high quality nutrition, exercise, limited exposure to toxins, and a positive mental attitude, you encourage your genes to express positive, disease-fighting behaviors.
This is what preventive medicine is all about. It's not about taking any one particular nutrient as a supplement to fix one specific "part" of your biological machinery... The more people become willing to embrace this simple truth, the healthier everyone will get.
It's also worth pointing out that epigenetic effects begin before birth.
Epigenetic research from 2009 showed that rat fetuses receiving poor nutrition in the womb become genetically primed for a nutrition-poor environment. As a result of this genetic adaptation, the rats tended to be smaller. They were also at higher risk for a host of health problems throughout their lives, such as diabetes, growth retardation, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and neurodevelopmental delays. Again, while some are tempted to blame such "predispositions" on bad genes, the KEY factor is nutrition, i.e. the cellular environment.
If you're ready to address your dietary choices, read through my comprehensive nutrition plan, which will give you tips and tools for eating healthy, dealing with stress, and living a lifestyle that will support your epigenetic health.
You can also turn your genes off and on with your emotions too. Many, if not most people carry emotional scars; traumas that can adversely affect health. Using techniques like energy psychology, you can go in and correct the trauma and help regulate your genetic expression. My favorite technique for this is the Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), but there are many others. Choose whichever one appeals to you, and if you don't sense any benefits, try another, until you find what works best for you.
Please, remember that 'You CAN Take Control of Your Health.'
Lorie Johnson (CBN News Medical Reporter); Monday, June 22, 2015
Unforgiveness is classified in medical books as a disease. According to Dr. Steven Standiford, chief of surgery at the Cancer Treatment Centers of America, refusing to forgive makes people sick and keeps them that way.
With that in mind, forgiveness therapy is now being used to help treat diseases, such as cancer.
"It's important to treat emotional wounds or disorders because they really can hinder someone's reactions to the treatments, even someone's willingness to pursue treatment," Standiford explained.
Of all cancer patients, 61 percent have forgiveness issues, and of those, more than half are severe, according to research by Dr. Michael Barry, a pastor and the author of the book, The Forgiveness Project.
"Harboring these negative emotions, this anger and hatred, creates a state of chronic anxiety," he said.
"Chronic anxiety very predictably produces excess adrenaline and cortisol, which deplete the production of natural killer cells, which is your body's foot soldier in the fight against cancer," he explained.
Barry saif the first step in learning to forgive is to realize how much we have been forgiven by God.
"When a person forgives from the heart – which is the gold standard we see in Matthew 18, forgiveness from the heart – we find that they are able to find a sense of peacefulness. Quite often our patients refer to that as a feeling of lightness," he said.
Barry said most people don't realize what a burden anger and hatred were until they let them go.
By Dr Timothy Jennings
Winston Churchill said, “There is nothing to fear except fear itself.” Have you ever wondered about that famous statement? Imagine walking a four-inch wide balance beam placed securely on the ground, your feet only a few inches from the dirt. Now imagine walking that same beam raised 100 feet in the air. Would your ability to successfully traverse the beam be negatively affected as you look down from such a height? What changed? Fear!
When we are afraid, the brain’s fear circuit (amygdala) activates, which floods the body with surges of stress chemicals (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). We experience the classic “fight or flight” response in which blood is shunted from our internal organs to our muscles and glucose is dumped into the blood stream. This is to bring us to quick attention in the face of an external threat, like the house being on fire. However, chronic fear, fear of failure, fear of rejection, fear of what others think, fear of financial ruin, and chronic worry of any kind keeps the fear circuits firing, which activates the body’s immune system, increasing inflammatory factors that injure our bodies. Under chronic fear, worry, and stress these inflammatory factors damage insulin receptors, increasing the risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, high cholesterol, heart attacks, and strokes.
Chronic fear also impairs growth of all types. A recent study documented that Iraqi children growing up in war zones were measurably shorter than Iraqi children growing up in rural safe zones. Fear impairs physical growth![i]
Maybe you have known someone with test anxiety or someone who froze when getting up in front of an audience. What happened? Their fear circuits fired, paralyzing their prefrontal cortex (thinking circuits). Intellectual and cognitive growth is impaired when we are afraid.
When something really frightens you, like smelling smoke as someone yells fire in a theater, where does your focus turn? Do you become more concerned with the strangers in the room or more concerned with saving self? The more fearful we become, the more self-focused we become. Fear impairs relational growth!
When we believe God concepts that incite fear, the ability to grow spiritually is impaired. It is in the prefrontal cortex (located right behind the forehead) where we reason, plan, organize, focus, concentrate, and self-restrain. It is also in the prefrontal cortex where we have our conscience, redirect inappropriate behavior, and worship. A special part of the frontal cortex, called the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is our neurological “heart.” It is here where we experience altruistic love and empathy. The ACC is also the seat of the will, the place we choose right from wrong. The proverb, “As a man thinks in his heart so is he” (Proverbs 23:7) is referring to the ACC.
Amazingly, brain research has demonstrated that people 60-65 years of age who meditated on a God of love, just 12 minutes a day for 30 days, experienced measurable growth in the ACC of their brains. This was directly correlated with reductions in heart rate, blood pressure and a 30% improvement in memory testing [ii]. Meditating on a God of love reduces fear and is healing to our being. Science confirms what the Bible tells us, “perfect love casts out all fear” (1John 4:18).
But, just as strikingly, brain research confirmed that meditating on angry, wrathful and punishing god concepts did not result in positive growth in the ACC, nor provide the beneficial reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and improvement in memory. In other words, angry or wrathful god concepts do not heal the brain, improve love, or enhance prefrontal cortex function. Instead, believing such concepts activates the fear circuits of the brain and contributes to impairments in healthy growth, thinking, reasoning, and relationships.
Love acted out is also healing. Research documents that youth who volunteered (love others with acts of altruism) experienced greater academic achievement, civic responsibility, and life skills that include leadership and interpersonal self-confidence than those who didn’t [iii]. And adults who volunteered (after accounting for variables such as education, baseline health, smoking, etc.) lived longer, had less illness, less disability, less depression, less dementia, and lived independently longer than those who did not [iv].
Fear is our enemy, it infects us, drives us toward destructive thinking, living and reacting. Whereas, love is the only power capable of freeing our hearts from fear and bringing genuine healing to our minds, bodies and relationships. So love well. Love always.
[i] Iraqi war stunts children’s growth http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100329082121.htm
[ii] Newberg, A. How God Changes Our Brain. Ballantine Books, New York. 2009: p.49.
[iii] Post, S. Altruism and Health Perspectives from Empirical Research, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007: p. 20, 21).
[iv] Ibid. p. 22, 26
Note: We should keep in mind that we have a spiritual center, but which spirit we allow in is up to us. We need to be careful about our choices!!!
Now, scientists from universities like Harvard, Pennsylvania and Johns Hopkins are using new technologies to analyze the brains of people who claim they have touched the spiritual — from Christians who speak in tongues to Buddhist monks to people who claim to have had near-death experiences.
Authors: Ron Philipchalk; Dieter Mueller
November 09, 2006
The neuroscience of speaking in tongues:
The New York Times has covered a recently published brain-scanning study of five individuals who ‘speak in tongues’ – an experience also known as glossolalia – where someone appears to be speaking in an incomprehensible language over which they seem to have no control.
This is usually linked to religious and spiritual worship, particularly for Christians in the charismatic tradition. A team of researchers, led by Dr Andrew Newberg, used a type of brain-imaging called SPECT to compare blood flow differences in the brain between when participants were singing hymns and when they were speaking in tongues.
The main findings were that when participants were speaking in tongues compared to when they were singing, there was a decrease in activity in the prefrontal cortex, the tip of the left temporal lobe and a deep brain structure called the caudate nucleus.
Although brain areas are known to have multiple functions, the prefrontal cortex is known to be involved incognitive control, while the left temporal pole is associated with naming and the caudate nucleus has been associated with the ability to switch between multiple languages.
The authors suggest that these findings may indicate a loosening of control over language functions in the brain, potentially leading to the production of apparently unstructured language that the participants experience as outside their control.
Notably, there were also relative increases in activity in the left parietal lobe (linked to our sense of body and spatial awareness) and the amygdala – an area known to be heavily involved in emotion.
However, this is not the first time that neuroscientists have studied speaking in tongues.
Dr Michael Persinger reported a case in 1984 where he used EEG recordings to look at the electrical activity in the brain of a 20 year-old female who experienced the same phenomenon.
The graph on the left shows EEG recordings taken from the temporal lobes during a period of speaking in tongues that show increased ‘spike events’.
This indicates that, like the more recent Newberg study, changes in temporal lobe function may be an important part of the experience.
Link to NYT article ‘A Neuroscientific Look at Speaking in Tongues’.
Link to abstract of SPECT study on speaking in tongues.
Glossolalia vs meditation
Delta spikes occurred within the temporal lobe during protracted intermittent episodes of glossolalia (speaking in tongues) by a member of a Pentecostal sect. There are other reports of delta activity during TM practices (Stigsby et al. 1981, Pagano et al, 1976), but these delta waves were mostly reported to be associated with stages of deep sleep.
*** interesting note: speaking in tongues produced the same results as those in deep relaxation, or deep sleep.
So tongue speaking is not due to increased mental effort. It is due to relaxing the mind.
Summary of scientific findings
1. Tongues does produce measurable changes in brain activity and blood flow in the brain.
2. Certain part of the brain experience decreased activity-those that reflect conscious (cognitive) control, structuredlanguage, and learning and memory.
What this means is that the mind is
a. not controlling the tongues,
b. language become unstructured and something the person is NOT familiar with
c. real tongues is NOT a learned, or remembered, manifestation.
3. Speaking in tongues is not due to increased mental effort. It is equated with deep sleep or deep relaxation.
4. There are spike events with Tongues, showing momentary decreased blood flow. Spikes are also found in epilepsy, but at a more intense level.
Before one becomes concerned that tongues is harmful, one needs to understand what epilepsy is, and how the EEG (brain electrical activity) is different from tongues.
Epilepsy reflects abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. This means that during the disease state, excess neurons are firing in unison, causing a seizure. In this case, the spikes are continuous, and excessive.
However, during tongues, the neurons are firing in spikes at much lower frequency intervals. There is a certain advantage to neurons firing in unison, to achieve a successful effect. But in tongues, they are “working together” but the participation is NOT excessive.
What can also cause brain malfunction, is if the neurons never work together, in unison. Tongues seems to be a condition between the two extremes of excess spikes, and none at all.
Glossolalia and Temperature Change in the Right and Left Cerebral Hemispheres
Authors: Ron Philipchalk a; Dieter Mueller b
Affiliations: a Trinity Western University.
b Surrey, B. C., Canada.
A NEW INTEGRATIVE MODEL FOR STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Gordana Vitaliano , M.D.
Published in NLP World, July 2000, Volume 7, No.2 pp. 41-82
Publication Frequency: 4 issues per year
Published in: International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Volume 10, Issue 3 July 2000 , pages 181 – 185
May 29, 2015
Kay Tye, Ph.D.
By examining the neural circuits involved in emotional processing, scientists are gaining a clearer picture of how the brain learns to associate certain environmental cues with positive or negative emotions. Such research could help guide the development of better treatments for disorders in which emotional processing is impaired, such as anxiety, addiction, and depression.
In work published April 29th in the journal Nature, a team led by 2013 NARSAD Young Investigator grantee Kay Tye, Ph.D., at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, focused on two groups of neurons that connect the amygdala (the brain's emotional processing hub) to circuits involved in either fear or reward responses. In experiments with mice, the scientists found that the strength of these cells' connections with other cells in the amygdala changes as an animal learns to either fear a certain stimulus or to associate a stimulus with a reward. They also showed that these cells are critically involved in both fear and reward learning.
Tye and her colleagues tested how fear and reward conditioning affect these two groups of cells, which intermingle in a part of the amygdala known as its basolateral complex, and extend from there to one of two other parts of the brain––either the centromedial amygdala, which is important for fear responses, or to a part of the brain's reward system called the nucleus accumbens.
When they trained animals to fear a sound, or tone, by pairing it with a mild shock, they found that cells that connect the basolateral amygdala to the fear-processing circuits developed stronger connections to the cells from which they received input. The same experience weakened such connections in cells that linked the basolateral amygdala to reward-processing circuits. Reward conditioning, in which the animals learned to associate a tone with a sip of sugar water, had the opposite effect on both groups of cells.
The team was able to enhance fear learning in the mice by artificially activating the link between the basolateral amygdala and the centromedial amygdala. When they switched those cells off, fear learning was impaired, but reward learning was enhanced. They observed the opposite effects when they manipulated the cells linking the basolateral amygdala to the nucleus accumbens.
The team's findings help explain how changes to neural circuits in the amygdala contribute to the learning processes that underlie both reward-seeking and fear-related behaviors.
Neuroscience News June 1, 2015
Implications profound for neurological diseases from autism to Alzheimer’s to multiple sclerosis.
In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist. That such vessels could have escaped detection when the lymphatic system has been so thoroughly mapped throughout the body is surprising on its own, but the true significance of the discovery lies in the effects it could have on the study and treatment of neurological diseases ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s disease to multiple sclerosis.
“Instead of asking, ‘How do we study the immune response of the brain?’ ‘Why do multiple sclerosis patients have the immune attacks?’ now we can approach this mechanistically. Because the brain is like every other tissue connected to the peripheral immune system through meningeal lymphatic vessels,” said Jonathan Kipnis, PhD, professor in the UVA Department of Neuroscience and director of UVA’s Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG). “It changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction. We always perceived it before as something esoteric that can’t be studied. But now we can ask mechanistic questions.”
“We believe that for every neurological disease that has an immune component to it, these vessels may play a major role,” Kipnis said. “Hard to imagine that these vessels would not be involved in a [neurological] disease with an immune component.”
New Discovery in Human Body
Kevin Lee, PhD, chairman of the UVA Department of Neuroscience, described his reaction to the discovery by Kipnis’ lab: “The first time these guys showed me the basic result, I just said one sentence: ‘They’ll have to change the textbooks.’ There has never been a lymphatic system for the central nervous system, and it was very clear from that first singular observation – and they’ve done many studies since then to bolster the finding – that it will fundamentally change the way people look at the central nervous system’s relationship with the immune system.”
Even Kipnis was skeptical initially. “I really did not believe there are structures in the body that we are not aware of. I thought the body was mapped,” he said. “I thought that these discoveries ended somewhere around the middle of the last century. But apparently they have not.”
‘Very Well Hidden’
The discovery was made possible by the work of Antoine Louveau, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Kipnis’ lab. The vessels were detected after Louveau developed a method to mount a mouse’s meninges – the membranes covering the brain – on a single slide so that they could be examined as a whole. “It was fairly easy, actually,” he said. “There was one trick: We fixed the meninges within the skullcap, so that the tissue is secured in its physiological condition, and then we dissected it. If we had done it the other way around, it wouldn’t have worked.”
After noticing vessel-like patterns in the distribution of immune cells on his slides, he tested for lymphatic vessels and there they were. The impossible existed. The soft-spoken Louveau recalled the moment: “I called Jony [Kipnis] to the microscope and I said, ‘I think we have something.'”
As to how the brain’s lymphatic vessels managed to escape notice all this time, Kipnis described them as “very well hidden” and noted that they follow a major blood vessel down into the sinuses, an area difficult to image. “It’s so close to the blood vessel, you just miss it,” he said. “If you don’t know what you’re after, you just miss it.”
“Live imaging of these vessels was crucial to demonstrate their function, and it would not be possible without collaboration with Tajie Harris,” Kipnis noted. Harris, a PhD, is an assistant professor of neuroscience and a member of the BIG center. Kipnis also saluted the “phenomenal” surgical skills of Igor Smirnov, a research associate in the Kipnis lab whose work was critical to the imaging success of the study.
Alzheimer’s, Autism, MS and Beyond
The unexpected presence of the lymphatic vessels raises a tremendous number of questions that now need answers, both about the workings of the brain and the diseases that plague it. For example, take Alzheimer’s disease. “In Alzheimer’s, there are accumulations of big protein chunks in the brain,” Kipnis said. “We think they may be accumulating in the brain because they’re not being efficiently removed by these vessels.” He noted that the vessels look different with age, so the role they play in aging is another avenue to explore. And there’s an enormous array of other neurological diseases, from autism to multiple sclerosis, that must be reconsidered in light of the presence of something science insisted did not exist.
About this neuroscience research
The findings have been published online by the prestigious journal Nature and will appear in a forthcoming print edition. The article was authored by Louveau, Smirnov, Timothy J. Keyes, Jacob D. Eccles, Sherin J. Rouhani, J. David Peske, Noel C. Derecki, David Castle, James W. Mandell, Lee, Harris and Kipnis.
Funding: The study was funded by National Institutes of Health grants R01AG034113 and R01NS061973. Louveau was a fellow of Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale.
Source: Debra Kain – University of Virginia Health System
Image Source: The image is credited to the University of Virginia Health System
Original Research: Abstract for “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels” by Antoine Louveau, Igor Smirnov, Timothy J. Keyes, Jacob D. Eccles, Sherin J. Rouhani, J. David Peske, Noel C. Derecki, David Castle, James W. Mandell, Kevin S. Lee, Tajie H. Harris and Jonathan Kipnis in Nature. Published online June 1 2015doi:10.1038/nature14432
Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels
One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment 1, 2, 3, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood 4, 5, 6. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.
“Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels” by Antoine Louveau, Igor Smirnov, Timothy J. Keyes, Jacob D. Eccles, Sherin J. Rouhani, J. David Peske, Noel C. Derecki, David Castle, James W. Mandell, Kevin S. Lee, Tajie H. Harris and Jonathan Kipnis in Nature. Published online June 1 2015 doi:10.1038/nature14432
USE these articles as a reference to your overcoming physical, emotional & spiritual problems & illnesses.
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